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Pilsudski (Józef Klemens Piłsudski) ....
1867 - Born in
1887 - He was
arrested and send to
1914 - Pilsudski
1918 - Appointment
as head of state and
leader of all Polish
1935 - Died
Joseph Pilsudski, alias: "Viktor", "Mieczyslaw", "Ziuk," by supporters called "Marshal", "the Commander" or "Grandfather".
[ Marshal Joseph Pilsudski ]
Who was Joseph (Jozef) Pilsudski?
Jozef Pilsudski was a Polish politician, military commander, independence activist, head of the Polish state in 1918-1922. Commander in chief of the Polish Army from November 11, 1918. The first Speaker of the Polish since the 1920s; Polish two-time prime minister. The creator of the so-called: Sanation government rule in the Second Republic introduced in 1926, after the coup.
Jozef Pilsudski was born in Zulowa, Russia, in 1867. While studying in the University of Kharkov he became a socialist and joined the People's Will organization. He was arrested in 1887 and sent to Siberia.
On his release in 1892 he founded the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) and edited the underground and left-wing newspaper, Robotnik where he promoted socialism and Polish nationalism. The paper was suppressed in 1900 and Pilsudski was once again arrested. Pilsudski escaped and formed a PPS Military Unit that carried out bank raids and killed members of the Tsarist police.
On 26th September, 1908, his gang stole 200,000 rubles from a mail train in Bezdany. Pilsudski used this money to build up a new revolutionary army.
Above: Gen. Pilsudski on the Poniatowski Bridge on 13 May, 1926
Roman Dmowski, the main leader of the Polish nationalist movement, believed the best way to achieve a unified and independent Poland, was to support the Triple Entente against the Triple Alliance. Pilsudski disagreed and saw Russia as the main enemy.
Pilsudski began building a private army that he hoped would enable Poland to fight for its independence from Russia.
In 1914 Pilsudski and his 10,000 men fought with the Austrians against the Russian Army but after the Russian Revolution his loyalty was questioned and he was arrested and imprisoned in July 1917.
On his release in 1918 Piłsudski became provisional head of state and leader of all Polish troops. Pilsudski represented Poland at the Versailles Treaty and his army successfully defended Poland against the Red Army (1919-20).
During the Russian Civil War Pilsudski's army made considerable gains and the Soviet-Polish Treaty of Riga (1921) left Poland in control of substantial areas of Lithuania, Belorussia and the Ukraine.
Pilsudski remained in charge of the army until 1923. After three years retirement, Pilsudski staged a military coup in May 1926. For the next nine years Pilsudski was the virtual dictator of Poland.
Jozef Pilsudski died in 1835 of cancer. After Pilsudski's death - in accordance with Piłsudski's last wishes his closest, longtime friend and collaborator, E. Rydz-Śmigły was named by Poland's president and government to be Inspector-General of the Polish Armed Forces, and on 10 November 1936, he was elevated to Marshal of Poland. Author Scriptures collective (1937).
Marshal's body rests today on Wawel, and the heart - in the grave of his mother at the Vilnius Rossa Cemetery.