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Education


Polish Language | Polski Język ...


Polish is the official language of Poland. It is believed to be one of the most difficult languages in the world.

 

 

[ Alphabet   |   Lessons: 1 -15  |  Lessons: 16 - 30   |  Lessons: 31 - 45   |  Polish language ]

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 A D V E R T I S E M E N T:

Polish is the official language of Poland. It belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, and the group of West Slavic languages (alongside Czech, Slovak, Kashubian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian and the now defunct Polabian language).

Poland is the most linguistically homogeneous European country where nearly 97% of Poland's citizens declare Polish as their native language.

In the United States, Polish Americans number more than 11 million, but most of them cannot speak Polish fluently. According to the United States 2000 Census, 667,414 Americans of age five years and over reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of people who speak languages other than English, 0.25% of the US population, and 6% of the Polish-American population. The largest concentrations of Polish speakers reported in the census (over 50%) were found in three states: Illinois (185,749), New York (111,740), and New Jersey (74,663). According to the 2011 census there are now over 500,000 people in England and Wales who consider Polish to be their "main" language. In Canada, there is a significant Polish Canadian population: There are 242,885 speakers of Polish according to the 2006 census, with a particular concentration in Toronto (91,810 speakers) and Montreal. There are significant numbers of Polish speakers among Polish emigrants and their descendants in many other countries around the world.

It is estimated that an average Pole has an active vocabulary of approximately 30,000 words, and a passive vocabulary of around 100,000 words which he or she does not use. According to the philologists from the University of Bialystok, it is enough to know the 1200 most frequently used words to communicate in Polish.

The Polish alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet and consists of 32 letters. It includes seven digraphs (sz, rz, cz, ch, dz, dż, dź), one digraph (dzi) and nine letters formed using diacritics (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż):



[ Gray letters are not used in Polish Alphabet ]

 

Letters from Latin alphabet:: Q, V i X are not on the Polish Alphabet,  because there is no need for them in Polish word formation. They occur only in words of foreign origin, ie borrowed letters.

Once in Polesie the Arabic language was used among the Tartars to write the Polish language.

 

There are seven grammatical cases and types of conjugation. Cases apply to nouns, adjectives, and participles in the function of modifiers, pronouns substituting nouns, adjectives and numerals, as well as numerals.

The originality of Polish culture is tied to its language and to its Slavonic roots. Linguistic studies indicate that 5000 to 4000 years ago early Balto-Slavic languages were part of the Aryan or the Eastern Indo-European languages. Over 3500 years ago, the languages of the Balto-Slavs separated from the Aryan languages. Than about 3000 years ago, the Baltic and Slavic languages separated from each other, and for the next 1500 years, the Slavic languages evolved parallel to the Greek, Latin, Celtic, Germanic, and other languages. The evolution of the Polish language occurred during the following 1500 years.

The oldest sentence in the Polish language: ‘Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai’ was written in 1270 in Wrocław, in the Book of Henryków. Fifteen years later, at the gathering in Łęczyca, it was decided that the Polish language will be used next to Latin in cloister and cathedral schools.

The Polish language has been influenced by Latin, Greek, German, Czech, Ruthenian, Turkish, French, Italian, Russian, Hungarian and Yiddish. Currently, it is most influenced by the lingua franca of our times – the English language.

The main dialects of the Polish language include: Greater Polish, Lesser Polish, Silesian, Masovian, Chełm-Kociewie-Warmian and North- and South-Eastern Borderlands’ dialects.

Polish is a highly inflected language, with relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

More information about Polish language you may find on web site: www.wikipedia.org

Online lessons of polish alphabet, press here.

 

Source: PI 
 

 

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