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The Polish alphabet consists of 32 letters: a, ą, b, c, ć, d, e, ę, f, g, h, i,
j, k, l, ł, m, n, ń, o, ó, p, (q), r, s, ś, t, u, (v), w, (x), y, z, ź, ż. The three additional letters q, v, x are only present in those unfamiliar foreign words that retain the original spelling. The order of these 35 letters is important when searching words in dictionaries,
like word: góra is listed after gotyk, because ó is a separate letter, not
just letter o.
Traditionally speaking, there are also 7 double signs denoting single sounds: ch, cz, dz, dź, dż, rz, sz,
even thou have similar sounds in some contexts (before a vowel), combinations of letters: ci, dzi, gi, ki, ni, si, zi (with some
differences like: bi, fi, mi, pi, wi). In dictionaries, all these two and three
combination characters are shown like a standard letter combination. Note that in certain words there may be combinations of the letters dz, dz, rz, which do not form a double character,
but represent two different sounds.
One of the basic principles of Polish spelling is that for the recording of combustible sounds:
- at the end of the words and before the consonants we use ć, ń, ś, ź, dź in
words: ryś, tańczyć, źrebię, miedź (lynx, dance, foal, copper).
- before i we write c, n, s, z, dz without a dash on top, in words: rysi, tani, cicho, zima, miedzi
(lynx, cheap, quiet, winter, copper).
- before another vowel we write ci, ni, si, zi, dzi, although we read a single sound, such as rysie, taniec, ciacho, ziemia, miedzią
(lynx, dance, cilia, earth, copper).
Other letters of the Polish alphabet are ę and ę. In the mistaken belief of most Poles out of school they are supposedly "nasal vowels". In the meantime, there are no nasal vowels in Polish
language: both letters with a tail indicate two consecutive voices in the course
The Polish alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet and now is used as:
[ Gray letters are not used in Polish Alphabet ]
Letters from Latin
alphabet:: Q, V i X are
not on the Polish
there is no need for
them in Polish word
formation. They occur
only in words of foreign
origin, ie borrowed
[The oldest Polish alphabet, collections from Cambridge Trinity College from XVI era.]
print preserved Gothic
writing until the
seventeenth century in a
variation called swabs.
It was not until the
turn of the 17th century
that all the printed
books circled letters.
The first linguists of
the Polish language were
in the field of alphabet
and orthography Krakow
Rector Jakub Parkoszowic
and Fr. Zaborowski
imitating the patterns
of John Hus. Their
successors were later
Górnicki and Januszowski.
Old Polish alphabet
according orthography of
Mr. Kochanowski: A à á ą b b’ c ć cz d dz dź dż e è é ę f g h ch i j k l ł m m’ n ń o ò ó p p’ q r rz s ś sz t u w w’ x y z ź ż”.
This set allows us to write
words in Polish dialects
and more accurate
transliteration of old
Once in Polesie the Arabic language was used among the
Tartars to write the
We invite you to online
lessons of polish