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Polish Alphabet | Alfabet Polski ...

Polish alphabet. History.



[ Alphabet   |   Lessons: 1 -15  |  Lessons: 16 - 30   |  Lessons: 31 - 45   |  Polish language ]

[an error occurred while processing this directive] The Polish alphabet consists of 32 letters: a, ą, b, c, ć, d, e, ę, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ł, m, n, ń, o, ó, p, (q), r, s, ś, t, u, (v), w, (x), y, z, ź, ż.  The three additional letters q, v, x are only present in those unfamiliar foreign words that retain the original spelling. The order of these 35 letters is important when searching words in dictionaries, like word:  góra is listed after gotyk, because  ó is a separate letter, not just letter o.

Traditionally speaking, there are also 7 double signs denoting single sounds: ch, cz, dz, dź, dż, rz, sz, even thou have similar sounds in some contexts (before a vowel), combinations of  letters: ci, dzi, gi, ki, ni, si, zi  (with some differences like: bi, fi, mi, pi, wi). In dictionaries, all these two and three combination characters are shown like a standard letter combination. Note that in certain words there may be combinations of the letters dz, dz, rz, which do not form a double character, but  represent two different sounds.

One of the basic principles of Polish spelling is that for the recording of combustible sounds:
- at the end of the words and before the consonants we use ć, ń, ś, ź, dź in words: ryś, tańczyć, źrebię, miedź (lynx, dance, foal, copper).
- before i we write c, n, s, z, dz without a dash on top, in words: rysi, tani, cicho, zima, miedzi (lynx, cheap, quiet, winter, copper).
- before another vowel we write ci, ni, si, zi, dzi, although we read a single sound, such as  rysie, taniec, ciacho, ziemia, miedzią (lynx, dance, cilia, earth, copper).

Other letters of the Polish alphabet are ę and ę. In the mistaken belief of most Poles out of school they are supposedly "nasal vowels". In the meantime, there are no nasal vowels in Polish language: both letters with a tail indicate two consecutive voices in the course of speech.

The Polish alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet and now is used as:

[ Gray letters are not used in Polish Alphabet ]


Letters from Latin alphabet:: Q, V i X are not on the Polish Alphabet,  because there is no need for them in Polish word formation. They occur only in words of foreign origin, ie borrowed letters.


[The oldest Polish alphabet, collections from Cambridge Trinity College from XVI era.]

Polish print preserved Gothic writing until the seventeenth century in a variation called swabs. It was not until the turn of the 17th century that all the printed books circled letters. The first linguists of the Polish language were in the field of alphabet and orthography Krakow Rector Jakub Parkoszowic and Fr. Zaborowski imitating the patterns of John Hus. Their successors were later humanists Kochanowski, Górnicki and Januszowski. Old Polish alphabet  –  "Obiecadlo according orthography of Mr. Kochanowski: A à á ą b b’ c ć cz d dz dź dż e è é ę f g h ch i j k l ł m m’ n ń o ò ó p p’ q r rz s ś sz t u w w’ x y z ź ż”. This set allows us to write words in Polish dialects and more accurate transliteration of old records.

Once in Polesie the Arabic language was used among the Tartars to write the Polish language.


We invite you to online lessons of polish alphabet, press here.


Source: PI 


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